Astrocytes, a highly heterogeneous population of glial cells, serve as essential regulators of brain development and homeostasis. The heterogeneity of astrocyte populations underlies the diversity in their functions. In addition to the typical mammalian astrocyte architecture, the cerebral cortex of humans exhibits a radial distribution of interlaminar astrocytes in the supragranular layers. These primate-specific interlaminar astrocytes are located in the superficial layer and project long processes traversing multiple layers of the cerebral cortex. However, due to the lack of accessible experimental models, their functional properties and their role in regulating neuronal circuits remain unclear. Here we modeled human interlaminar astrocytes in humanized glial chimeric mice by engrafting astrocytes differentiated from human-induced pluripotent stem cells into the mouse cortex. This model provides a novel platform for understanding neuron-glial interaction and its alterations in neurological diseases.
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