Pathologists collect swab samples for Papanicolaou (Pap) staining to diagnose various diseases including cancer and HIV. Time constraints and limited resources, may preclude staining a sample immediately. To re-confirm results, samples must be frozen for later analysis. We present a method for Pap staining cells that have been stored long term. An effective method for Pap staining of frozen cells should enable flexibility for processing samples.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalBiotechnic and Histochemistry
StateAccepted/In press - 2020


  • Frozen samples
  • Papanicolaou staining
  • long term storage oral swab

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Histology
  • Medical Laboratory Technology

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