Modulation of Metacognitive Confidence Judgments Through Provision of Performance Feedback in Moderate to Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

Kathy S. Chiou, Holly Klecha, Megan Jones, Ekaterina Dobryakova

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Objective: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) may result in metacognitive impairments. Enhancing memory in healthy adults can improve metacognitive accuracy, but it is unclear whether such interventions apply to individuals with TBI. This study examined the effects of manipulating target memory experiences on metacognitive accuracy in TBI. Participants: Fourteen community-dwelling adults with TBI and 17 healthy controls. Main Measures: Memory was manipulated through performance feedback (monetary, nonmonetary, or none) presented during a word-pair learning task. Recognition of the word pairs was assessed, and metacognition was evaluated by retrospective confidence judgments. Results: Both groups demonstrated greater recognition performance for items learned with nonmonetary feedback. Healthy individuals demonstrated improved metacognitive accuracy for items learned with nonmonetary feedback, but this effect was not seen in individuals with TBI. A notable (but statistically nonsignificant) effect was observed whereby adults with TBI overestimated performance for items learned with monetary feedback compared with other feedback conditions. Conclusion: Provision of feedback during learning enhances recognition performance. However, target memory experiences may be utilized differently after injury to facilitate confidence judgments. In addition, the type of feedback provided may have different effects on metacognitive accuracy. These results have implications for rehabilitative efforts in the area of memory and metacognition after injury.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)71-78
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 1 2022


  • brain injuries
  • feedback
  • memory training
  • metacognition
  • traumatic

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
  • Rehabilitation
  • Clinical Neurology


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