In fungi, cellular morphogenesis is driven by localized membrane expansion and cell wall deposition. Variation in the geometry of fungal cells likely arises through the precise temporal and spatial regulation of these processes. Nevertheless, these modes of regulation are not well understood in filamentous fungi. This review focuses on three key aspects of fungal cellular morphogenesis: symmetry breaking, polarity maintenance, and septum formation. The mechanisms underlying cellular morphogenesis are summarized, with an emphasis on comparison to the model yeasts. In addition, mechanisms that coordinate morphogenesis with the yeast cell division cycle are briefly outlined. It is proposed that to some extent, analogous mechanisms function during fungal development to alter cell shape and size.