Molecules to modeling: Toxoplasma gondii oocysts at the human-animal-environment interface

Elizabeth VanWormer, Heather Fritz, Karen Shapiro, Jonna A.K. Mazet, Patricia A. Conrad

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

74 Scopus citations


Environmental transmission of extremely resistant Toxoplasma gondii oocysts has resulted in infection of diverse species around the world, leading to severe disease and deaths in human and animal populations. This review explores T. gondii oocyst shedding, survival, and transmission, emphasizing the importance of linking laboratory and landscape from molecular characterization of oocysts to watershed-level models of oocyst loading and transport in terrestrial and aquatic systems. Building on discipline-specific studies, a One Health approach incorporating tools and perspectives from diverse fields and stakeholders has contributed to an advanced understanding of T. gondii and is addressing transmission at the rapidly changing human-animal-environment interface.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)217-231
Number of pages15
JournalComparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Issue number3
StatePublished - May 2013
Externally publishedYes


  • Climate change
  • Environmental resistance
  • Land use change
  • Modeling
  • Molecular characterization
  • One Health
  • Oocyst
  • Toxoplasma gondii
  • Transport
  • Zoonotic disease

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology
  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology
  • General Veterinary
  • Infectious Diseases


Dive into the research topics of 'Molecules to modeling: Toxoplasma gondii oocysts at the human-animal-environment interface'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this