Background Solid small renal masses (SRMs) (≤4 cm) represent benign and malignant tumors. Among SRMs, clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is frequently aggressive. When compared with invasive percutaneous biopsies, the objective of the proposed clear cell likelihood score (ccLS) is to classify ccRCC noninvasively by using multiparametric MRI, but it lacks external validation. Purpose To evaluate the performance of and interobserver agreement for ccLS to diagnose ccRCC among solid SRMs. Materials and Methods This retrospective multicenter cross-sectional study included patients with consecutive solid (≥25% approximate volume enhancement) SRMs undergoing multiparametric MRI between December 2012 and December 2019 at five academic medical centers with histologic confirmation of diagnosis. Masses with macroscopic fat were excluded. After a 1.5-hour training session, two abdominal radiologists per center independently rendered a ccLS for 50 masses. The diagnostic performance for ccRCC was calculated using random-effects logistic regression modeling. The distribution of ccRCC by ccLS was tabulated. Interobserver agreement for ccLS was evaluated with the Fleiss κ statistic. Results A total of 241 patients (mean age, 60 years ± 13 [SD]; 174 men) with 250 solid SRMs were evaluated. The mean size was 25 mm ± 8 (range, 10-39 mm). Of the 250 SRMs, 119 (48%) were ccRCC. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value for the diagnosis of ccRCC when ccLS was 4 or higher were 75% (95% CI: 68, 81), 78% (72, 84), and 76% (69, 81), respectively. The negative predictive value of a ccLS of 2 or lower was 88% (95% CI: 81, 93). The percentages of ccRCC according to the ccLS were 6% (range, 0%-18%), 38% (range, 0%-100%), 32% (range, 60%-83%), 72% (range, 40%-88%), and 81% (range, 73%-100%) for ccLSs of 1-5, respectively. The mean interobserver agreement was moderate (κ = 0.58; 95% CI: 0.42, 0.75). Conclusion The clear cell likelihood score applied to multiparametric MRI had moderate interobserver agreement and differentiated clear cell renal cell carcinoma from other solid renal masses, with a negative predictive value of 88%.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging