Insulin and the insulin-like growth factors (IGF) I and II are structurally related peptides that elicit a large number of similar biological effects in target cells. Three well-characterized receptor complexes bind one or more of these peptides with high affinity. Two of these receptors, denoted as type I, are ligand-activated tyrosine kinases with similar heterotetrameric alpha 2 beta 2 subunit structures which bind insulin or IGF-I, respectively, with highest affinity. Ligand-stimulated tyrosine autophosphorylation of these receptors further activates their intrinsic tyrosine kinase activities both in vitro and in intact cells. Rapid signal transduction follows such receptor autophosphorylation and tyrosine kinase activation, leading to increased serine phosphorylation of many cellular proteins and decreased serine phosphorylation of several others. Experiments in our laboratory have identified three distinct insulin-activated serine kinase activities in cell-free extracts that appear to account for the insulin-stimulated serine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor itself, ATP citrate lyase, and acetyl CoA carboxylase, respectively. A third receptor in this group binds IGF-I and II, lacks kinase activity and is denoted as type II IGF receptor. Amino acid sequences of this receptor deduced from isolated rat cDNA clones show a high degree of homology with those of the bovine cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate (Man-6-P) receptor. We demonstrated that these receptors are indeed identical. The IGF-II/Man-6-P receptor rapidly recycles between the cell surface membrane and intracellular membrane compartments, providing for the rapid uptake of both IGF-II and mannose 6-phosphate-linked lysosomal enzymes. Insulin action markedly increases the proportion of receptors in the plasma membrane and the uptake of bound ligands. We also observe that large amounts of the extracellular domain of the IGF-II/Man-6-P receptor are released into the serum of fetal, neonatal and adult rats. The biological role of this receptor in IGF-II function is yet to be determined.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Pages (from-to)||27-41; discussion 42-44|
|Journal||Ciba Foundation symposium|
|State||Published - 1989|
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