N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists that are highly selective for specific NMDA receptor 2 (NR2) subunits have several potential therapeutic applications; however, to date, only NR2B-selective antagonists have been described. Whereas most glutamate binding site antagonists display a common pattern of NR2 selectivity, NR2A > NR2B > NR2C > NR2D (high to low affinity), (2S*,3R*)-1-(phenanthrene-2-carbonyl) piperazine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid (PPDA) has a low selectivity for NR2C- and NR2D-containing NMDA receptors. A series of PPDA derivatives were synthesized and then tested at recombinant NMDA receptors expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. In addition, the optical isomers of PPDA were resolved; the (-) isomer displayed a 50- to 80-fold greater potency than the (+) isomer. Replacement of the phenanthrene moiety of PPDA with naphthalene or anthracene did not improve selectivity. However, phenylazobenzoyl (UBP125) or phenylethynylbenzoyl (UBP128) substitution significantly improved selectivity for NR2B-, NR2C-, and NR2D-containing receptors over NR2A-containing NMDA receptors. Phenanthrene attachment at the 3 position [(2R*,3S*)-1-(phenanthrene-3-carbonyl) piperazine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid (UBP141); (2R*,3S*)-1-(9- bromophenanthrene-3-carbonyl)piperazine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid (UBP145); (2R*,3S*)-1-(9-chlorophenanthrene-3-carbonyl)piperazine-2, 3-dicarboxylic acid (UBP160); and (2R*,3S*)-1-(9-iodophenanthrene-3- carbonyl)piperazine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid (UBP161)] displayed improved NR2D selectivity. UBP141 and its 9-brominated homolog (UBP145) both display a 7- to 10- fold selectivity for NR2D-containing receptors over NR2B- or NR2A-containing receptors. Schild analysis indicates that these two compounds are competitive glutamate binding site antagonists. Consistent with a physiological role for NR2D-containing receptors in the hippocampus, UBP141 (5 μM) displayed greater selectivity than PPDA for inhibiting the slow-decaying component of the NMDA receptor-mediated CA3-CA1 synaptic response in rat hippocampal slices. UBP125, UBP128, UBP141, and UBP145 may be useful tools for determining the function of NMDA receptor subtypes.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||9|
|Journal||Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics|
|State||Published - Nov 2009|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Medicine