Nanolithography by tip-enhanced laser irradiation

Z. H. Mai, Y. F. Lu, W. D. Song, W. K. Chim

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Recently, scanning probe lithography by applying an electric field between the tip and the sample has been shown to be a promising technique for nanofabrication. In this paper, we present a novel method of nanofabrication, namely, nanolithography by tip-enhanced laser irradiation. Based on the operation of the laser-assisted scanning tunneling microscope (STM), we established a nanolithography system using tip-enhanced laser irradiation, which was developed from a commercial scanning probe microscope (SPM). In our investigation, the SPM was operated as an STM. During imaging and lithography, the STM is in a constant current mode. The tip is fixed and the sample moves via a tube scanner. Nanolithography software controls the scanner movement in the x and y direction. The SPM has an open architecture, allowing an external laser beam incident on the tip at an incident angle between 0 to 45°. A vertical polarized Nd:YAG pulsed laser with a pulse duration of 7 ns was focused on the surfaces of the tip and the sample. An electrical shutter was introduced to switch the laser irradiation during lithography. Alignment of the laser to the tip-sample gap was performed under a high power charge coupled device (CCD) microscope. Nanolithography was performed on hydrogen (H)-passivated Si (100) surfaces and H-passivated Ge (100) surfaces. The Si samples and the Ge samples were passivated in HF solution. STM tips were homemade electrochemically from a 0.5-mm tungsten wire. Oxide features were created by tip-enhanced laser irradiation. The experimental results will be discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)200-207
Number of pages8
JournalProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
StatePublished - 1999
Externally publishedYes
EventProceedings of the 1999 Photonic Systems and Applications in Defence and Manufacturing - Singapore, Singapore
Duration: Dec 1 1999Dec 3 1999

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Applied Mathematics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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