Neighborhood deprivation and risk of mortality among men with prostate cancer: Findings from a long-term follow-up study

K. C. Madhav, Evrim Oral, Ariane L. Rung, Edward J. Trapido, Laura S. Rozek, Elizabeth T.H. Fontham, Jeannette T. Bensen, Laura Farnan, Susan E. Steck, Lixin Song, James L. Mohler, Edward S. Peters

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Background: The overall survival rate of prostate cancer (PCa) has improved over the past decades. However, huge socioeconomic and racial disparities in overall and prostate cancer-specific mortality exist. The neighborhood-level factors including socioeconomic disadvantage and lack of access to care may contribute to disparities in cancer mortality. This study examines the impact of neighborhood deprivation on mortality among PCa survivors. Methods: North Carolina–Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project (PCaP) data were used. A total of 2113 men, 1046 AA and 1067 EA, with PCa were included in the analysis. Neighborhood deprivation was measured by the Area Deprivation Index (ADI) at the census block group level using data from the US Census Bureau. Quintiles of ADI were created. Cox proportional hazards and competing risk models with mixed effects were performed to estimate the effect of neighborhood deprivation on all-cause and PCa-specific mortality adjusted for age, race, study site, insurance status, and comorbidities. Results: Participants living in the most deprived neighborhoods had an increased risk for all-cause mortality (quintiles 4 + 5: adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 1.51, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.16–1.96) compared to those in the least deprived (quintile 1) neighborhoods. The risk of prostate cancer-specific mortality was also higher among those living in the deprived neighborhoods (quintiles 4 + 5: aHR = 1.90, 95% CI = 1.10–3.50) than those in the least deprived neighborhood. Conclusions: The findings suggest neighborhood-level resources or health interventions are essential to improve survival among men with PCa. Additional research should focus on the mechanisms of how the neighborhood environment affects mortality.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)783-792
Number of pages10
Issue number7
StatePublished - May 15 2022


  • ADI
  • North Carolina–Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project
  • mortality
  • neighborhood deprivation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Urology


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