The authors review the neuropsychology, brain bases, and genetics of three related disorders of language development: reading disability, or developmental dyslexia (RD); language impairment (LI); and speech sound disorder (SSD). Over the past three decades, cognitive analysis has demonstrated that the reading difficulties of most children who have RD result from phonologic impairments (difficulties processing the sound structure of language). Although understanding of LI and SSD is somewhat less developed, both disorders are also associated with phonologic impairments, which may account for their comorbidity with RD. Research across levels of analysis is progressing rapidly to promote understanding not only of each disorder by itself but also of the relationships of the three disorders to each other.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health