HIV-1-specific cellular immunity serves to eliminate infected cells and disease. However, how this process specifically affects the CNS is poorly understood. To mirror the regulatory events that occur in human brain after HIV-1 infection, a murine model of viral encephalitis was used to study relationships, over time, among lymphocyte-mediated infected cell elimination, innate immune responses, and neuropathology. Nonobese diabetic SCID mice were reconstituted with human PBL and a focal encephalitis induced by intracranial injection of autologous HIV-1-infected, monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM). On days 7, 14, and 21 after MDM injection into the basal ganglia, the numbers of human lymphocytes and mouse monocytes, virus-infected MDM, glial (astrocyte and microglial) responses, cytokines, inducible NO (iNOS), neurotrophic factors, and neuronal Ags were determined in brain by immunohistochemistry, real-time PCR, and Western blot assays. Microglia activation, astrocytosis, proinflammatory cytokines, and iNOS expression accompanied the loss of neuronal Ags. This followed entry of human lymphocytes and mouse monocytes into the brain on days 7 and 14. Elimination of virus-infected human MDM, expression of IL-10, neurotropins, and a down-regulation of iNOS coincided with brain tissue restoration. Our results demonstrate that the degree of tissue damage and repair parallels the presence of infected macrophages and effectors of innate and adaptive immunity. This murine model of HIV-1 encephalitis can be useful in elucidating the role played by innate and adaptive immunity in disease progression and resolution.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy