Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is an approved therapy for some neonates who have respiratory failure that is due to hyaline membrane disease, meconium aspiration, persistent pulmonary hypertension, congenital diaphragmatic hernia, or sepsis. The major complication of this therapy is hemorrhage, with intracranial hemorrhage having the highest morbidity and mortality. Seizures, incisional bleeding and bleeding in the pleural space, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, renal failure, and cardiovascular complications account for most of the other complications. Cranial sonography provides an ideal imaging modality for baseline evaluation and daily follow-up; however, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, because of better sensitivity, are important for assessment after ECMO. The changes in intracranial blood flow related to ECMO can be noninvasively evaluated by Doppler ultrasound modalities.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
- Clinical Neurology