Neurotoxicity Linked to Dysfunctional Metal Ion Homeostasis and Xenobiotic Metal Exposure: Redox Signaling and Oxidative Stress

Carla Garza-Lombó, Yanahi Posadas, Liliana Quintanar, María E. Gonsebatt, Rodrigo Franco

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

32 Scopus citations

Abstract

Significance: Essential metals such as copper, iron, manganese, and zinc play a role as cofactors in the activity of a wide range of processes involved in cellular homeostasis and survival, as well as during organ and tissue development. Throughout our life span, humans are also exposed to xenobiotic metals from natural and anthropogenic sources, including aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury. It is well recognized that alterations in the homeostasis of essential metals and an increased environmental/occupational exposure to xenobiotic metals are linked to several neurological disorders, including neurodegeneration and neurodevelopmental alterations. Recent Advances: The redox activity of essential metals is key for neuronal homeostasis and brain function. Alterations in redox homeostasis and signaling are central to the pathological consequences of dysfunctional metal ion homeostasis and increased exposure to xenobiotic metals. Both redox-active and redox-inactive metals trigger oxidative stress and damage in the central nervous system, and the exact mechanisms involved are starting to become delineated. Critical Issues: In this review, we aim to appraise the role of essential metals in determining the redox balance in the brain and the mechanisms by which alterations in the homeostasis of essential metals and exposure to xenobiotic metals disturb the cellular redox balance and signaling. We focus on recent literature regarding their transport, metabolism, and mechanisms of toxicity in neural systems. Future Directions: Delineating the specific mechanisms by which metals alter redox homeostasis is key to understand the pathological processes that convey chronic neuronal dysfunction in neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental disorders. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 28, 1669-1703.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1669-1703
Number of pages35
JournalAntioxidants and Redox Signaling
Volume28
Issue number18
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 20 2018

Keywords

  • essential metals
  • heavy metals
  • neurodegeneration
  • neurotoxicity
  • redox

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Physiology
  • Molecular Biology
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Cell Biology

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