Background Despite recent advances, current pediatric echocardiographic nomograms for valvular and arterial dimensions remain limited. Methods We prospectively studied healthy Caucasian Italian children by two-dimensional (2D) echocardiography. Echocardiographic measurements for 18 valvular and arterial dimensions were performed and models were generated testing for linear, logarithmic, exponential, and square root relationships. Heteroscedasticity was accounted for by White or Breusch–Pagan test. Age, weight, height, heart rate, and body surface area (BSA) were used as independent variables in different analyses to predict the mean values of each measurement. Structured Z-scores were then computed. Results In all, 1151 subjects (age 0 days to 17 years; 45% females; BSA 0.12–2.12 m2) were studied. The Haycock formula was used when presenting data as predicted values (mean ± 2 SDs) for a given BSA and within equations relating echocardiographic measurements to BSA. The predicted values and Z-score boundaries for all measurements are presented. Conclusions We report echocardiographic nomograms for valvular and arterial dimensions derived from a large population of children. Integration of these data with those of previous reports would allow for a comprehensive coverage of pediatric 2D echocardiographic nomograms for measurement of 2D cardiac structures.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine