Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the virus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), also manifests neurological complications. HIV-associated dementia (HAD) is the most severe form of HIV-induced neurocognitive disorders. HIV encephalitis (HIVE), the pathological correlate of HAD, is characterized by the formation of multinucleated giant cells and microglial nodules, astrocytosis, and neuronal damage and loss. Pathological evaluation of HAD disease progression in humans is not possible, with the only data collected being from individuals who have succumbed to the disorder, a snap shot of end-stage disease at best. Therefore, pertinent animal models have been developed to alleviate this gap of knowledge in the field of neurovirology and neuroinflammation. In general, the most widely used animal models are the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and the chimeric simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) macaque model systems. Although both SIV and SHIV model systems are able to potentiate neuroinvasion and the concomitant neuropathology similar to that seen in the human syndromes, the innate differences between the two in disease pathogenesis and progression make for two separate, yet effective, systems for the study of HIV-associated neuropathology.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience