Nora virus vp4b and orf1 circulate in hemolymph of infected d. Melanogaster with coordinate expression of vago and vir-1

Amanda Macke, Wilfredo Lopez, Darby J. Carlson, Kimberly A. Carlson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Study of the novel RNA virus, Nora virus, which is a persistent, picorna-like virus that replicates in the gut of Drosophila melanogaster offers insight into human innate immunity and other picorna-like viruses. Nora virus infection leads to a locomotor abnormality and upregulation of two candidate target proteins, Vago and Virus-induced RNA 1 (Vir-1). These proteins are uncharacterized in response to Nora virus. We hypothesize that Nora virus is circulating in the hemolymph of Nora virus-infected D. melanogaster, allowing for migration beyond the primary site of replication in the gut. Analysis by qRT-PCR demonstrated biphasic viral load and corresponding vago and vir-1 transcription levels, suggesting transcription of vago and vir-1 occurs in response to viral infection. However, Vir-1 is also present in virus-free D. melanogaster suggesting basal expression or alternative functions. Presence of Nora virus RNA and the Viral Protein 4b (VP4b), in hemolymph of infected D. melanogaster supports the hypothesized circulation of Nora virus in the hemolymph. The study suggests that impaired locomotor function may be due to transport of Nora virus from the gut to the brain via the hemolymph.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number491
Pages (from-to)1-13
Number of pages13
JournalVaccines
Volume8
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 2020

Keywords

  • Drosophila melanogaster
  • Hemolymph
  • Nora virus
  • Picorna-like virus
  • Vago
  • Vir-1

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology
  • Pharmacology
  • Drug Discovery
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Pharmacology (medical)

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