Norming the Muses: Establishing the Psychometric Properties of the Kaufman Domains of Creativity Scale

Hansika Kapoor, Roni Reiter-Palmon, James C. Kaufman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Scopus citations


The Kaufman Domains of Creativity Scale (K-DOCS; Kaufman, J. C. (2012). Counting the muses: Development of the Kaufman domains of creativity scale (K-DOCS). Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 6(4), 298-308. doi:10.1037/a0029751) is a self-report assessment of five creative domains: Everyday, Scholarly, Performance, Scientific, and Artistic. This investigation was designed to reassess the factor structure of the K-DOCS, examine its measurement invariance across men and women, and develop norms across the five domains. Data on 22,013 American participants who had completed the assessment as part of past or ongoing studies between 2012 and 2020 were collated across multiple samples. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that both five- and nine-factor solutions had superior fit compared to a one-factor solution. The models were also gender invariant, indicating that creative domains were assessed similarly across male and female samples. Norms across gender and age-groups were provided to enable future comparisons in research settings; it is not recommended to use these norms in clinical or diagnostic contexts. The investigation concluded that the K-DOCS is a robust psychometric tool for the self-assessment of creativity across domains.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)680-693
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Psychoeducational Assessment
Issue number6
StatePublished - Sep 2021


  • creative domains
  • creativity
  • measurement invariance
  • norms
  • self-assessment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Clinical Psychology
  • General Psychology


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