North American musculoskeletal ultrasound scanning protocol of the hip, knee, ankle, and foot: update of a Delphi consensus study


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3 Scopus citations


Background/objective: A North American rheumatology consensus on tiered-mastery designation for anatomic views was developed in 2011 for course and fellowship teaching. This study updates the lower extremity joint scanning protocols aiming to inform musculoskeletal ultrasound curriculum development for the American College of Rheumatology affiliated Fellowship Programs. Methods: Three Delphi rounds were conducted to reach consensus for tiered-level mastery designation for hip, knee, ankle, and foot scanning views. The survey was disseminated (Qualtrics™) to 101 potential participants with ultrasound teaching experience. High agreement was defined as ≥ 85% consensus and final tier designation as having >50% agreement for the preferred tier. Response changes were evaluated by McNemar’s chi-square test. Results: Consensus regarding tier designations was reached for 80% of the views. Three knee views (anterior transverse suprapatellar, medial, and lateral longitudinal) and 2 ankle views (anterior and posterior transverse) achieved upgrades to tier 1 from 2. The transverse sacroiliac hip joint was downgraded from tier 2 to 3. The lateral longitudinal hip view was added with a tier 1 designation. Conclusion: Updated scanning protocols support modifications reflecting current scanning methods delivered by North American rheumatologists performing point of care ultrasound that may inform educators involved in rheumatology ultrasound.Key Points• The anterior transverse suprapatellar, medial, and lateral longitudinal knee views; the anterior and posterior transverse ankle views; and the lateral longitudinal view hip view were perceived as important to master and perform routinely.• The transverse sacroiliac joint view was suggested to be performed based on practice focus.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4233-4242
Number of pages10
JournalClinical Rheumatology
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 2021


  • Musculoskeletal ultrasound
  • Scanning protocol
  • Ultrasound of the ankle and foot
  • Ultrasound of the hip
  • Ultrasound of the knee

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Rheumatology


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