Background: Obstructive uropathy after kidney transplant can present as acute kidney injury, urosepsis, and more rarely kidney allograft failure. We present a recent series of 2 cases and a literature review of 1 late etiology of ureteric obstruction: incarceration of the transplant ureter within an inguinal hernia. Methods: We reviewed 2 cases of patients with ureteric incarceration in an inguinal hernia after kidney transplant and conducted a contemporary structured literature review. Relevant patient factors, management decisions, operative approaches, and clinical outcomes were abstracted and summarized. Results: Two cases of ureteric involvement in an inguinal hernia from 2 institutions as well as a literature review of 14 case reports are provided. The clinical features most commonly associated with this condition were male sex, obesity, and decade or more delay between kidney transplantation and presentation. Preoperative management with nephrostomy tube with or without antegrade ureteric stent was most frequently employed. Ultimately, most patients underwent surgical hernia repair, which occasionally required additional surgery for distal ureteric resection or re-anastomosis. Conclusions: Incarceration of a transplant allograft ureter in inguinal hernia is likely not as rare as initially described, although a true incidence rate has not been established. This surgically correctible condition most frequently presents as a late complication after kidney transplantation. We present a management algorithm that can be used for the workup and treatment of patients with history of kidney transplant who present with ureteric obstruction owing to incarceration within an inguinal hernia.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||6|
|State||Published - Sep 2021|
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