Numerical analysis of convection heat transfer in a rectangular packed duct with asymmetric heating

Y. Makkawi, Y. Demirel, H. H. Al-Ali

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

9 Scopus citations


Fully developed, forced convection heat transfer in a rectangular packed duct is analyzed numerically based on a two-dimensional model incorporating the effects of Raschig ring packing on the Ergun equation. The boundary conditions are based on asymmetric heating with only the top wall supplied with a constant heat flux, while the other walls are adiabatic. The numerical predictions are compared with measured temperature profiles and local Nusselt numbers obtained from a large scale packed duct with L/H= 16 and W/H = 8, using Raschig rings of 4.8 cm in size. The prediction represents the experimental data satisfactorily. The volumetric entropy generation of the duct is also evaluated and displayed graphically that shows the distribution of entropy generation due to heat transfer and pressure drop in the duct.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)455-463
Number of pages9
JournalEnergy Conversion and Management
Issue number5-6
Publication statusPublished - Mar 1 1998



  • Asymmetric heating
  • Entropy generation
  • Forced convection
  • Numerical analysis
  • Packed duct

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Nuclear Energy and Engineering
  • Fuel Technology
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology

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