The use of pond ash (fly ash that has been placed in evaporative ponds for storage and subsequently dewatered) for feedlot surfaces provides a drier environment for livestock and furnishes economic benefits. However, the water quality effects of pond ash use are not well defined. The objectives of this field investigation were to: a) compare feedlot soil properties, and nutrient and bacterial transport in runoff from soil and pond ash feedlot surfaces, b) compare the effects of unconsolidated surface materials (USM) (loose manure pack) and consolidated subsurface materials (CSM) (compacted manure and underlying layers) on runoff nutrient and bacterial transport, and c) determine if runoff nutrient and bacterial transport are correlated to feedlot soil properties. Simulated rainfall events were applied to 0.75-m wide by 2-m long plots. Soil measurements of calcium, magnesium, and pH were significantly greater on the pond ash than the soil surfaces. The feedlot soil surfaces contained significantly greater amounts of Bray 1-P and sulfur than the pond ash surface. The runoff load of NH4-N was significantly greater on the surfaces containing pond ash, while the TP load was significantly greater on the soil surfaces. The NO3-N and TN loads in runoff were significantly greater on the surfaces with CSM than USM. Concentrations of Escherichia coli in runoff were similar on the pond ash and soil surfaces. The DP, PP, and TP load of runoff were all significantly correlated to Bray 1-P measurements. Thus, it may be possible to predict runoff phosphorus load from soil P measurements.