Purpose Pancreatic cancer is a devastating disease for which the role of dietary factors remains inconclusive. Our objective was to evaluate the risk of pancreatic cancer associated with nutrients found in fruits and vegetables and nutrient supplementation using a clinic-based case-control design. Methods Our study included 384 rapidly ascertained cases and 983 controls frequency-matched on age at time of recruitment (in 5-year increments), race, sex, and region of residence. All subjects provided demographic information and completed a 144-item food frequency questionnaire in which they reported no change to their diet within 5 years prior to entering the study. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios and 95 % confidence intervals, adjusted for age, sex, smoking, body mass index, energy intake, and alcohol consumption. Results Results show a significant (trend p value<0.05) inverse association between pancreatic cancer and nutrient/ supplement groupings in a dose-dependent manner including magnesium, potassium, selenium, alpha-carotene, betacarotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lutein and zeaxanthin, niacin, total alpha-tocopherol, total vitamin A activity, vitamin B6, and vitamin C. Adjusting for diabetes or total sugar intake did not result in significant changes. Conclusion We conclude that most nutrients obtained through consumption of fruits and vegetables may reduce the risk of developing pancreatic cancer.
- Pancreatic cancer
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