Nutritional composition, gross energy concentration, and in vitro digestibility of dry matter in 46 sources of bakery meals

North Central Coordinating Committee on Swine Nutrition (NCCC-42)

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Scopus citations


Work was conducted to test the hypothesis that the nutritional composition of bakery meal varies depending on where in the United States the meal is produced due to different raw materials being used in the production of the meals. Forty-six samples of bakery meal were collected from feed mills located in the swine producing states in the United States. Based on the state where samples were collected, they were grouped into 5 regions: 1) AL, DE, GA, NC, PA, and VA (10 samples); 2) CO, MO, OK, and TX (10 samples); 3) IN, KY, OH, and TN (8 samples); 4) IA (11 samples); and 5) MN (7 samples). All samples were analyzed for proximate components, GE, AA, carbohydrates, and minerals, and IVDMD and in vitro energy digestibility (IVGED) were also determined. Results indicated that the average concentration of DM was (91.84 ± 1.29%) and there was no difference among regions. The concentration of ash in bakery meal from MN was greater (P < 0.05) than in meals from other regions, but for all other proximate components, no differences among sources were observed. The average concentration (DM basis) of CP (12.20 ± 2.16%), acid hydrolyzed ether extract (AEE, 9.38 ± 1.95%), starch (44.61 ± 5.47%), and NDF (13.77 ± 4.23%) indicated that bakery meal consists of a mixture of food ingredients originating from flour or whole cereal grains and with some high-fiber ingredients such as brans or canola coproducts also included. It also appears that oil or fats were added during production. With the exception of His, no differences among regions were observed for indispensable AA and the average concentrations (DM basis) of Lys, Met, Thr, and Trp were 0.35 ± 0.08%, 0.19 ± 0.03%, 0.38 ± 0.06%, and 0.13 ± 0.03%, respectively. The bakery meals from MN contained more (P < 0.05) Ca than bakery meals from other regions, indicating that limestone may have been added to bakery meal from MN to improve flowability. However, bakery meals from MN and IA contained less (P < 0.05) total P, phytate, and phytate-bound P than bakery meals produced in the states east of the Mississippi River. There were, however, no differences in IVDMD (79.06 ± 6.62%) or of IVGED (74.84 ± 8.20%) of bakery meals among regions. The present results indicate that variations in the chemical composition of bakery meal obtained from different regions in the United States are relatively small and likely without great impact on the nutritional value of the meals, but in vivo digestibility experiments are needed to confirm this hypothesis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4685-4692
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of animal science
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 21 2018


  • Bakery meal
  • Chemical composition
  • In vitro DM digestibility
  • Nutrients
  • Variability

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Genetics
  • Animal Science and Zoology


Dive into the research topics of 'Nutritional composition, gross energy concentration, and in vitro digestibility of dry matter in 46 sources of bakery meals'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this