Ocular complications of HIV/AIDS in the era of HAART

Millena G. Bittencourt, Owhofasa O. Agbedia, Hong T. Liu, Rachel Annam, Yasir J. Sepah, Henry Alexander Leder, Raafay Sophie, Mohamed Ibrahim, Abeer Akhtar, Anam Akhlaq, Diana V. Do, Quan Dong Nguyen

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Mortality associated with AIDS has declined after the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) with fewer patients progressing to severe infections. This has affected the incidence and management of HIV complications to a great extent. The natural history, incidence, management and sequelae of a wide range of HIV-Associated retinopathies, especially cytomegalovirus retinitis, have also drastically changed. The reduction in the incidence of ocular opportunistic infections due to HAART has been accompanied by a rise in the number of new HAART-Associated syndromes such as immune recovery uveitis. Immune recovery uveitis is a HAART-dependent inflammatory response that may occur in patients with regressed cytomegalovirus retinitis and elevated CD4 count and has emerged as an important cause of ocular and visual morbidity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)555-564
Number of pages10
JournalExpert Review of Ophthalmology
Issue number6
StatePublished - Dec 2012
Externally publishedYes


  • AIDS
  • HIV-Associated retinopathies
  • cytomegalovirus retinitis
  • immune recovery uveitis
  • ophthalmic opportunistic infections

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Ophthalmology
  • Optometry


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