Omega‐3 long‐chain polyunsaturated fatty acids intake by ethnicity, income, and education level in the United States: NHANES 2003–2014

Caleb Cave, Nicholas Hein, Lynette M. Smith, Ann Anderson‐berry, Chesney K. Richter, Karl Stessy Bisselou, Adams Kusi Appiah, Penny Kris‐etherton, Ann C. Skulas-Ray, Maranda Thompson, Tara M. Nordgren, Corrine Hanson, Melissa Thoene

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Although there are many recognized health benefits for the consumption of omega‐3 (n‐ 3) long‐chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA), intake in the United States remains below recommended amounts. This analysis was designed to provide an updated assessment of fish and n‐3 LCPUFA intake (eicosapentaenoic (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and EPA+DHA) in the United States adult population, based on education, income, and race/ethnicity, using data from the 2003‐2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) (n = 44,585). Over this survey period, participants with less education and lower income had significantly lower n‐3 LCPUFA intakes and fish intakes (p <0.001 for all between group comparisons). N‐3 LCPUFA intake differed significantly according to ethnicity (p <0.001), with the highest intake of n‐3 LCPUFA and fish in individuals in the “Other” category (including Asian Americans). Supplement use increased EPA + DHA intake, but only 7.4% of individuals consistently took supplements. Overall, n‐3 LCPUFA intake in this study population was low, but our findings indicate that individuals with lower educational attainment and income are at even higher risk of lower n‐3 LCPUFA and fish intake.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number2045
Pages (from-to)1-13
Number of pages13
JournalNutrients
Volume12
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 2020

Keywords

  • Docosahexaenoic acid
  • Education
  • Eicosapentaenoic acid
  • Ethnicity
  • Fish oil supplements
  • Income
  • Oily fish
  • Omega‐3 fatty acids

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

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    Cave, C., Hein, N., Smith, L. M., Anderson‐berry, A., Richter, C. K., Bisselou, K. S., Appiah, A. K., Kris‐etherton, P., Skulas-Ray, A. C., Thompson, M., Nordgren, T. M., Hanson, C., & Thoene, M. (2020). Omega‐3 long‐chain polyunsaturated fatty acids intake by ethnicity, income, and education level in the United States: NHANES 2003–2014. Nutrients, 12(7), 1-13. [2045]. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072045