Optical scattering in beef steak to predict tenderness using hyperspectral imaging in the VIS-NIR region

Kim Cluff, Govindarajan Konda Naganathan, Jeyamkondan Subbiah, Renfu Lu, Chris R. Calkins, Ashok Samal

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

80 Scopus citations


The objective of this research is to develop a non-destructive method for predicting cooked beef tenderness using optical scattering of light on fresh beef muscle tissue. A hyperspectral imaging system (λ=496-1,036 nm) that consists of a CCD camera and an imaging spectrograph, was used to acquire beef steak images. The hyperspectral image consisted of 120 bands with spectral intervals of 4.54 nm. Sixty-one fresh beef steaks, including 44 strip loin and 17 tenderloin cuts, were collected. After imaging, the steaks were cooked and Warner-Bratzler shear (WBS) force values were collected as tenderness references. The optical scattering profiles were derived from the hyperspectral images and fitted to the modified Lorentzian function. Parameters, such as the peak height, full scattering width at half maximum (FWHM), and the slope around the FWHM were determined at each wavelength. Stepwise regression was used to identify 7 key wavelengths and parameters. The parameters were then used to predict the WBS scores. The model was able to predict WBS scores with an R=0.67. Optical scattering implemented with hyperspectral imaging shows limited success for predicting current status of tenderness in beef steak.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)189-196
Number of pages8
JournalSensing and Instrumentation for Food Quality and Safety
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2008


  • Beef tenderness
  • Hyperspectral imaging
  • Modified Lorentzian function
  • Optical scattering
  • Warner-Bratzler shear force

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


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