Augmented renal clearance (ARC) can occur in critically ill pediatric patients receiving aminoglycosides such as gentamicin and tobramycin, yet optimal dosing strategies for ARC are undefined. We evaluated the probability of achieving efficacious or toxic exposures in pediatrics. Parallel population modeling of concentration strategies were pursued using Pmetrics v1.5.2 (nonparametric) and Monolix v2019R2 (parametric). Bayesian exposures were used to classify ARC based on total clearance (CL). The effects of serum creatinine (SCR), creatinine clearance (CRCL), total body weight (TBW), postnatal age (PNA), and ARC were explored as covariates. The probabilities of target attainment (PTA) (i.e., maximum concentration [Cmax]/MIC, area under the concentration-time curve [AUC]/MIC) and of toxic exposure (PTE) (i.e., minimum concentration [Cmin] . 2 mg/ml) were calculated according to PNA and ARC. A total of 123 patients (1 to 21 years old, 56% female) contributed 304 concentrations. A two-compartment model was superior to a one-compartment model in both approaches. Bayesian posterior predicted concentrations from the nonparametric base model fit the data well (R2 = 0.96) and classified 34 patients as having ARC (28%). Both the nonparametric and parametric approaches resulted in allometrically scaling of TBW on volume (V) and clearance (CL). ARC modified CL and central V. CRCL and a maturation function modified CL. ARC was associated with a 1.49- versus 1.66-fold increase in CL and a 1.56- versus 1.66-fold increase in the central V (nonparametric versus parametric). A high dose of 12 mg/kg of body weight/day was required to achieve adequate PTA when MICs were 1 to 2 mg/ml; ARC lowered achievable MICs. When PNA was,2 years, PTE was increased. Aminoglycoside monotherapy should be avoided in critically ill pediatric patients with ARC when MICs exceed 1 mg/ml, as optimal exposures are unachievable with standard dosing.
- Augmented renal clearance
- Population-based pharmacokinetic modeling
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pharmacology (medical)
- Infectious Diseases