Oral epithelial cell reaction after exposure to Invisalign plastic material

Thyagaseely Premaraj, Samantha Simet, Mark Beatty, Sundaralingam Premaraj

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

28 Scopus citations


Introduction: Invisalign plastic aligners (Align Technology, Santa Clara, Calif) are used to correct malocclusions. The aligners wrap around the teeth and are in contact with gingival epithelium during treatment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cellular responses of oral epithelium exposed to Invisalign plastic in vitro. Methods: Oral epithelial cells were exposed to eluate obtained by soaking Invisalign plastic in either saline solution or artificial saliva for 2, 4, and 8 weeks. Cells grown in media containing saline solution or saliva served as controls. Morphologic changes were assessed by light microscopy. The 3-[4, 5-dimethythiazol- 2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay and flow cytometry were used to determine cell viability and membrane integrity, respectively. Cellular adhesion and micromotion of epithelial cells were measured in real time by electrical cell-substrate impedance sensing. Results: Cells exposed to saline-solution eluate appeared rounded, were lifted from the culture plates, and demonstrated significantly increased metabolic inactivity or cell death (P <0.05). Saliva eluates did not induce significant changes in cell viability compared with untreated cells. Flow cytometry and electric cell-substrate impedance sensing showed that cells treated with saline-solution eluate exhibited compromised membrane integrity, and reduced cell-to-cell contact and mobility when compared with saliva-eluate treatment. Conclusions: Exposure to Invisalign plastic caused changes in viability, membrane permeability, and adhesion of epithelial cells in a saline-solution environment. Microleakage and hapten formation secondary to compromised epithelial integrity might lead to isocyanate allergy, which could be systemic or localized to gingiva. However, these results suggest that saliva might offer protection.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)64-71
Number of pages8
JournalAmerican Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2014

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthodontics


Dive into the research topics of 'Oral epithelial cell reaction after exposure to Invisalign plastic material'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this