Organization and development of horizontal cells in the goldfish retina, I: The use of monoclonal antibody AT101

Dominic Man Kit Lam, You Wei Peng

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


We have produced and characterized a monoclonal antibody, AT101, which selectively labels both viable and formaldehyde-fixed horizontal cell axon terminals, but not their somas or axons, of the goldfish (Carassius auratus) retina. The antigen recognized by AT101 appears to be a cell surface glycoprotein with a molecular weight of about 35,000 Daltons, and is present exclusively or predominantly in nervous tissues of all vertebrate species examined. We have used AT101 as a probe to analyze immunocytochemically the organization of horizontal cell axon terminals (HCATs) in the adult goldfish retina, and the emergence and maturation of these terminals during retinal development. Because of continued growth at the retinal margin in adult goldfish, there is a peripheral-to-central gradient in the age of cells, with the most mature in the center and the youngest in the periphery. In the center and near periphery of the adult retina, HCATs have a fusiform morphology and form a dense network in the middle and proximal part of the inner nuclear layer. In the far peripheral retina, the axon terminals appear round or ellipsoid. The retina closest to the retinal margin is devoid of AT101 staining, indicating that either HCATs are absent or the antigen recognized by AT101 is not present on HCATs at this stage. A similar sequence of changes in staining pattern is seen during development. Although AT101 staining can first be demonstrated in the larval retina at 1 month after hatching, it appears mostly as punctate structures. At a later stage, there are round or ellipsoid structures that resemble in morphology and location (in the inner nuclear layer) those found in the far peripheral adult retina. Double-labeling experiments with AT101 and antiserum against tubulin also indicate that AT101 labels the HCATs when they first appear during development. These data suggest that the emergence and maturation of HCAT is a late event in retinal development.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)357-370
Number of pages14
JournalVisual Neuroscience
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 1991
Externally publishedYes


  • Axon terminals
  • Cell-type
  • Goldfish
  • Horizontal cells
  • Retinal organization and development
  • specific monoclonal antibody

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Sensory Systems


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