Oxidative damage in the gastrocnemius predicts long-term survival in patients with peripheral artery disease

Panagiotis Koutakis, Hernan Hernandez, Dimitrios Miserlis, Jonathan R. Thompson, Evlampia Papoutsi, Constance J. Mietus, Gleb Haynatzki, Julian K. Kim, George P. Casale, Iraklis I. Pipinos

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Patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) have increased mortality rates and a myopathy in their affected legs which is characterized by increased oxidative damage, reduced antioxidant enzymatic activity and defective mitochondrial bioenergetics. This study evaluated the hypothesis that increased levels of oxidative damage in gastrocnemius biopsies from patients with PAD predict long-term mortality rates. Oxidative damage was quantified as carbonyl adducts in myofibers of the gastrocnemius of PAD patients. The oxidative stress data were grouped into tertiles and the 5-year, all-cause mortality for each tertile was determined by Kaplan-Meier curves and compared by the Modified Peto test. A Cox-regression model was used to control the effects of clinical characteristics. Results were adjusted for age, sex, race, body mass index, ankle-brachial index, smoking, physical activity, and comorbidities. Of the 240 study participants, 99 died during a mean follow up of 37.8 months. Patients in the highest tertile of oxidative damage demonstrated the highest 5-year mortality rate. The mortality hazard ratios (HR) from the Cox analysis were statistically significant for oxidative damage (lowest vs middle tertile; HR = 6.33; p = 0.0001 and lowest vs highest; HR = 8.37; p < 0.0001). Survival analysis of a contemporaneous population of PAD patients identifies abundance of carbonyl adducts in myofibers of their gastrocnemius as a predictor of mortality rate independently of ankle-brachial index, disease stage and other clinical and myopathy-related covariates.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number21
Journalnpj Aging
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 2024

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Aging
  • Geriatrics and Gerontology


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