Oxidative degradation of quinoline using nanoscale zero-valent iron supported by granular activated Carbon

Vijayalakshmi Gosu, Bhola Ram Gurjar, Tian C. Zhang, Rao Y. Surampalli

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24 Scopus citations


The nano zero-valent iron supported granular activated carbon (nFe0/GAC or 2.5%-nFe0/GAC) was synthesized by the liquid chemical reduction method and further used for the oxidative degradation of quinoline. The 2.5%-nFe0/GAC was characterized by various techniques such as Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). It was ascertained that iron is of zero state and well dispersed on GAC. The 2.5%-nFe0/GAC exhibited an H4 type hysteresis loop with a surface area of ∼240 m2/g. The kinetic study reveals that quinoline degradation follows the pseudo-first order. At optimum conditions of pH=4, m=7.5 g/L, Co=100 mg/L, and T=303 K, it was observed that (1) ∼93% of quinoline and ∼63% of total organic carbon (TOC) removal is obtained, (2) iron leaching is within the permissible limit, and (3) it requires ∼63±5 min for completion of the half-life of quinoline. The activation energy is ∼22.4 kJ/mole, which indicates that quinoline removal is controlled by a chemical surface reaction. The degradation by-products of quinoline were analyzed. The mass fragments (of m/z=146 and 178) due to hydroxylation were obtained, which were further reduced into low m/z fragments, which may lead to mineralization of quinoline.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of Environmental Engineering (United States)
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2016


  • 2.5 % - nFe 0 / GAC
  • Kinetics
  • Oxidative degradation
  • Quinoline
  • Zero-valent iron

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • General Environmental Science


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