Pancreatic cancer is one of the most challenging adenocarcinomas due to its hostile molecular behavior and complex tumor microenvironment. It has been recently postulated that pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs), the resident lipid-storing cells of the pancreas, are important components of the tumor microenvironment as they can transdifferentiate into highly proliferative myofibroblasts in the context of tissue injury. Targeting tumor-stromal crosstalk in the tumor microenvironment has emerged as a promising therapeutic strategy against pancreatic cancer progression and metastasis. This chapter brings a broad view on the biological and pathological role of PSCs in the pancreas, activated stellate cells in the onset of tissue fibrosis, and tumor progression with particular emphasis on the bidirectional interactions between tumor cells and PSCs. Further, potential therapeutic regimens targeting activated PSCs in the pre-clinical and clinical trials are discussed.