Pangenome graphs improve the analysis of structural variants in rare genetic diseases

Cristian Groza, Carl Schwendinger-Schreck, Warren A. Cheung, Emily G. Farrow, Isabelle Thiffault, Juniper Lake, William B. Rizzo, Gilad Evrony, Tom Curran, Guillaume Bourque, Tomi Pastinen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Rare DNA alterations that cause heritable diseases are only partially resolvable by clinical next-generation sequencing due to the difficulty of detecting structural variation (SV) in all genomic contexts. Long-read, high fidelity genome sequencing (HiFi-GS) detects SVs with increased sensitivity and enables assembling personal and graph genomes. We leverage standard reference genomes, public assemblies (n = 94) and a large collection of HiFi-GS data from a rare disease program (Genomic Answers for Kids, GA4K, n = 574 assemblies) to build a graph genome representing a unified SV callset in GA4K, identify common variation and prioritize SVs that are more likely to cause genetic disease (MAF < 0.01). Using graphs, we obtain a higher level of reproducibility than the standard reference approach. We observe over 200,000 SV alleles unique to GA4K, including nearly 1000 rare variants that impact coding sequence. With improved specificity for rare SVs, we isolate 30 candidate SVs in phenotypically prioritized genes, including known disease SVs. We isolate a novel diagnostic SV in KMT2E, demonstrating use of personal assemblies coupled with pangenome graphs for rare disease genomics. The community may interrogate our pangenome with additional assemblies to discover new SVs within the allele frequency spectrum relevant to genetic diseases.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number657
JournalNature communications
Volume15
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2024

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry
  • General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
  • General Physics and Astronomy

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