After ischemic renal injury (IRI), selective damage occurs in the S 3 segments of the proximal tubules as a result of inhibition of glycolysis, but the mechanism of this inhibition is unknown. We previously reported that inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) activity protects against ischemia-induced necrosis in proximal tubules by preserving ATP levels. Here, we tested whether PARP-1 activation in proximal tubules after IRI leads to poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of the key glycolytic enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), a modification that inhibits its activity. Using in vitro and in vivo models, under hypoxic conditions, we detected poly(ADP-ribosyl)-ation and reduced activity of GAPDH; inhibition of PARP-1 activity restored GAPDH activity and ATP levels. Inhibition of GAPDH with iodoacetate exacerbated ATP depletion, cytotoxicity, and necrotic cell death of LLCPK1 cells subjected to hypoxic conditions, whereas inhibition of PARP-1 activity was cytoprotective. In conclusion, these data indicate that poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of GAPDH and the subsequent inhibition of anaerobic respiration exacerbate ATP depletion selectively in the proximal tubule after IRI.
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