Passive and active markers of cortical excitability in epilepsy

Georgia Ramantani, M. Brandon Westover, Stephen Gliske, Johannes Sarnthein, Sridevi Sarma, Yujiang Wang, Maxime O. Baud, William C. Stacey, Erin C. Conrad

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Electroencephalography (EEG) has been the primary diagnostic tool in clinical epilepsy for nearly a century. Its review is performed using qualitative clinical methods that have changed little over time. However, the intersection of higher resolution digital EEG and analytical tools developed in the past decade invites a re-exploration of relevant methodology. In addition to the established spatial and temporal markers of spikes and high-frequency oscillations, novel markers involving advanced postprocessing and active probing of the interictal EEG are gaining ground. This review provides an overview of the EEG-based passive and active markers of cortical excitability in epilepsy and of the techniques developed to facilitate their identification. Several different emerging tools are discussed in the context of specific EEG applications and the barriers we must overcome to translate these tools into clinical practice.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)S25-S36
Issue numberS3
StatePublished - Dec 2023


  • EEG biomarkers
  • cortical excitability
  • epilepsy
  • high-frequency oscillations
  • interictal spikes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology


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