Patient Characteristics and Causes of Facial Fractures in the State of California

Sankeerth Rampa, Fernando A. Wilson, Hyo Jung Tak, Shreya Roy, Rajvi J. Wani, Michael R. Markiewicz, Veerasathpurush Allareddy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


Purpose: Each year, more than 400,000 emergency department (ED) visits in the United States are due to facial fractures. To inform targeted interventions to prevent facial fractures, the purpose of this study was to identify patient characteristics associated with causes of facial fractures in California. Materials and Methods: The 2005 to 2011 California State Emergency Department Database was used for this cross-sectional study. The study population was composed of all ED visits for facial fractures. The primary outcome was cause of injury: fall, firearm injury, motor vehicle traffic accident, pedal cycle accident, pedestrian accident, transport accident, and assault. Predictor variables included patient characteristics, such as age, gender, insurance type, and race and ethnicity. Multivariable logistic regression models were used. Results: There were 198,870 ED visits for facial fractures from 2005 to 2011. The patients' average age was 35.7 years. Most ED visits were by male patients (71%), privately insured patients (35%), and white patients (52%). Approximately 65% of visits were on weekdays and 93% were routinely discharged. Closed fractures of nasal bones, other facial bones, orbital floor, malar and maxillary bones, and mandible were the most prevalent (91%) facial fractures. Assaults (44%), falls (24%), and motor vehicle traffic crashes (6%) were the top 3 causes of facial fractures. Elderly patients (odds ratio [OR] = 6.17), female patients (OR = 2.25), and Medicare enrollees (OR = 1.51) were statistically more likely to have fall-related fractures than patients 45 to 64 years old, male patients, and privately insured patients. Blacks (OR = 0.46) and micropolitan residents (OR = 0.76) were statistically less likely to have fall-related fractures than whites and metropolitan residents. Conclusions: Violence among youth and falls among the elderly are predominant causes of facial fractures. The uninsured contribute to more than one fourth of ED visits for facial fractures. Interventions targeted at these population groups can curb the prevalence of these fractures.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1855-1866
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2019

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Oral Surgery
  • Otorhinolaryngology


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