Pediatric nomograms for left ventricle biplane 2D volumes in healthy Caucasian children

Massimiliano Cantinotti, Marco Scalese, Raffaele Giordano, Eliana Franchi, Pietro Marchese, Cecilia Vicava, Nadia Assanta, Giorgio Iervasi, Shelby Kutty, Martin Koestenberger

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Background: Left ventricular (LV) volumes are basic parameters used to estimate ventricular size and function; however, normal values are not available in children. The aim of our study is to provide normal values for LV volumes (measured with the biplane Simpson method) in healthy children. Materials and methods: We prospectively studied 1320 healthy Caucasian Italian children (age 0 days-17 years, 49.4% female). Echocardiographic measurements on LV volumes were performed. Age, heart rate (HR), and body surface area (BSA) were used as independent variables in different analyses to predict the mean values of each measurement. Results: Models with exponential (ln[y] = a + b*ln[x]) equations resulted in the best fit for LV volumes. The association with BSA was found to be stronger than the association of HR and age. Thus BSA was used for normalization of our data. Predicted values and Z-score boundaries by BSA are provided. Conclusions: We report normal values for 2D biplane LV volumes in a population of healthy children. These data cover a gap in current pediatric echocardiographic nomograms and may serve as baseline for evaluation of children with cardiac defects characterized by LV dilatation or hypoplasia.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)971-975
Number of pages5
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 1 2020
Externally publishedYes


  • echocardiography
  • left ventricle
  • nomograms
  • pediatric

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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