Pegcetacoplan in paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria: A systematic review on efficacy and safety

Sangam Shah, Rajan Chamlagain, Ziyaul Haq Musalman, Yagya Raj Adhikari, Santosh Chhetri, Sujan Paudel, Krishna Gundabolu, Prajwal Dhakal

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations

Abstract

Introduction: Pegcetacoplan, a pegylated penta-decapeptide, targets complement C3 to control both intravascular and extravascular hemolysis. This systematic review aims to study the efficacy and safety of pegcetacoplan in paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH). Methods: We performed a comprehensive and systematic literature search for all studies on PubMed, Google Scholar, Cochrane Library, and clinicaltrials.gov. The studies were searched using keywords “paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria” or “PNH,” “Pegcetacoplan” or “Empaveli.” The primary outcomes included change in hemoglobin level, transfusion independence, absolute reticulocyte count, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level after pegcetacoplan therapy. The safety outcomes included the proportion of deaths and adverse effects. Results: We included a total of three studies. The total number of patients with PNH was112. 59.83% were female. In the PADDOCK study and study by Hillmen et al., the average increase in hemoglobin was 3.68 g/L and 2.37 g/L, respectively. In the study by de Castro et al., the hemoglobin level increased from below the lower limit of normal and stayed in the normal range (11.1–15.9 g/L). Absolute reticulocyte count and LDH levels decreased in all patients receiving pegcetacoplan. In the study by de Castro et al., LDH level remained stable, and within <1.5× upper limit of normal, whereas in the study by Hillman, the mean change of LDH from baseline was −15 ± 43 U/L. Two of six, seven of 23, and seven of 41 patients reported adverse events in the study by de Castro et al., PADDOCK, and Hillmen et al., respectively. Conclusion: Pegcetacoplan effectively improves hemoglobin level and transfusion requirements in patients with PNH, including those unresponsive to eculizumab.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere12781
JournalResearch and Practice in Thrombosis and Haemostasis
Volume6
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 2022

Keywords

  • eculizumab
  • efficacy
  • paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria
  • pegcetacoplan
  • safety

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hematology

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