Performance of Urine Reagent Strips in Detecting the Presence and Estimating the Prevalence and Intensity of Schistosoma haematobium Infection

Abraham Degarege, Abebe Animut, Yohannes Negash, Berhanu Erko

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations

Abstract

The performance of the urine reagent strips (URS) in detecting the presence and estimating the intensity of Schistosoma haematobium infection was evaluated using urine filtration microscopy as a reference standard. Urine samples collected from 1288 school-age children living in five villages of the Afar and one village in the Gambella Regional States of Ethiopia between October 2021 and April 2022 were examined using urine filtration and URS. The prevalence of S. haematobium infection was 31.6% based on urine filtration and 32.1% using URS. Using results of the urine filtration as a reference, the sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive values, and accuracy of the URS in detecting S. haematobium egg-positive urine specimens were 73.7%, 87.8%, 87.1%, and 82.8%, respectively. Sensitivity increased significantly with an increase in the urine egg count. Specificity was greater in low prevalence settings and among children aged 5–9 years. The level of hematuria detected was trace (19.1%), weak (30.2%), moderate (36.0%), or high (14.7%). The log odds of showing higher-level hematuria significantly increased as the number of egg counts in urine increased. In conclusion, URS remains good in rapidly screening individuals for S. haematobium infection, but the sensitivity of the test could be lower, particularly when the intensity of the infection is light.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number2062
JournalMicroorganisms
Volume10
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2022

Keywords

  • Ethiopia
  • Schistosoma haematobium
  • school children
  • urine filtration
  • urine reagent strips

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology
  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Virology

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