Purpose: The use of transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) has evolved to include patients undergoing high-risk non-cardiac procedures and patients with significant cardiac disease undergoing non-cardiac surgery. Implementation of basic TEE education in training programs has increased across a broad spectrum of procedures in the perioperative arena. This paper describes the use of perioperative TEE in non-cardiac surgery and provides an overview of the basic TEE examination. Principal findings: Perioperative TEE is used to monitor hemodynamic parameters in non-cardiac procedures where there is a high risk of hemodynamic instability. Its use extends to include moderate-risk procedures for patients with significant cardiac diseases such as low ejection fraction, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, severe valve lesions, or congenital heart disease. Vascular procedures involving the aorta, blunt trauma, and liver transplantation are all examples of procedures that may benefit from TEE. Transesophageal echocardiography examination allows assessment of volume status, ventricular function, diagnosis of gross valvular pathology and pericardial tamponade, as well as close monitoring of cardiac output, response to therapy, and the impact of ongoing surgical manipulation. In patients with unexplained and unexpected hemodynamic instability, “rescue TEE” can be used to help identify the underlying cause. Conclusions: Perioperative TEE is emerging as a preferred tool to manage hemodynamics in high-risk procedures and in high-risk patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery. A rescue TEE examination protocol is a helpful approach for early identification of the etiology of hemodynamic instability.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine