Person-Based Similarity Index for Cognition and Its Neural Correlates in Late Adulthood: Implications for Cognitive Reserve

Anna West, Noah Hamlin, Sophia Frangou, Tony W. Wilson, Gaelle E. Doucet

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Healthy aging is typically associated with some level of cognitive decline, but there is substantial variation in such decline among older adults. The mechanisms behind such heterogeneity remain unclear but some have suggested a role for cognitive reserve. In this work, we propose the "person-based similarity index"for cognition (PBSI-Cog) as a proxy for cognitive reserve in older adults, and use the metric to quantify similarity between the cognitive profiles of healthy older and younger participants. In the current study, we computed this metric in 237 healthy older adults (55-88 years) using a reference group of 156 younger adults (18-39 years) taken from the Cambridge Center for Ageing and Neuroscience dataset. Our key findings revealed that PBSI-Cog scores in older adults were: 1) negatively associated with age (rho = -0.25, P = 10-4) and positively associated with higher education (t = 2.4, P = 0.02), 2) largely explained by fluid intelligence and executive function, and 3) predicted more by functional connectivity between lower- and higher-order resting-state networks than brain structural morphometry or education. Particularly, we found that higher segregation between the sensorimotor and executive networks predicted higher PBSI-Cog scores. Our results support the notion that brain network functional organization may underly variability in cognitive reserve in late adulthood.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)397-407
Number of pages11
JournalCerebral Cortex
Volume32
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 15 2022
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • brain functional connectivity
  • brain structural morphometry
  • cognitive reserve
  • late adulthood
  • person-based similarity index

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cognitive Neuroscience
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience

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