pH-sensitive nanomedicine of novel tubulin polymerization inhibitor for lung metastatic melanoma

Rajan S. Bhattarai, Jitender Bariwal, Virender Kumar, Chen Hao, Shanshan Deng, Wei Li, Ram I. Mahato

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Microtubule binding agents such as paclitaxel and vincristine have activity in metastatic melanoma. However, even responsive tumors develop resistance, highlighting the need to investigate new drug molecules. Here, we showed that a new compound, CH-2-102, developed by our group, has high anti-tumor efficacy in human and murine melanoma cells. We confirmed that CH-2-102 robustly suppresses the microtubule polymerization process by directly interacting with the colchicine binding site. Our results unveil that CH-2-102 suppresses microtubule polymerization and subsequently induces G2 phase cell arrest as one of the possible mechanisms. Notably, CH-2-102 maintains its efficacy even in the paclitaxel resistance melanoma cells due to different binding sites and a non-Pgp substrate. We developed a pH-responsive drug-polymer Schiff bases linker for high drug loading into nanoparticles (NPs). Our CH-2-102 conjugated NPs induced tumor regression more effectively than Abraxane® (Nab-paclitaxel, N-PTX), free drug, and non-sensitive NPs in B16-F10 cell-derived lung metastasis mouse model. Furthermore, our results suggest that the formulation has a high impact on the in vivo efficacy of the drug and warrants further investigation in other cancers, particularly taxane resistant. In conclusion, the microtubule polymerization inhibitor CH-2-102 conjugated pH-responsive NPs induce tumor regression in lung metastasis melanoma mice, suggesting it may be an effective strategy for treating metastatic melanoma.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)569-583
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Controlled Release
StatePublished - Oct 2022


  • Chemoresistance
  • Melanoma
  • Microtubule inhibitor
  • Nanoparticles
  • pH-sensitive

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmaceutical Science


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