Pharmacist-Provided Pharmacogenetic Point-of-Care Testing Consultation Service: A Time and Motion Study

David R. Bright, Michael E. Klepser, Logan Murry, Donald G. Klepser

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Background: With recent advances in pharmacogenomics (PGx) comes the potential to customize medication use based on genetic data. Support for PGx has found practical limitations in terms of workflow and turnaround time of a test. However, with the expansion of point-of-care testing (POCT) in pharmacy practice models comes opportunity for PGx testing in the pharmacy setting. Objective: The purpose of this study is to quantify the amount of time spent during each step of a PGx POCT encounter in a community pharmacy setting. Methods: A time and motion study was conducted using a mock community pharmacy space for a simulated PGx-focused encounter to manage antiplatelet therapy following hospital discharge. PGx POCT was conducted using the Spartan RX instrument. Simulated patient encounters were divided into 7 categories. Time spent in each step, as well as total time spent, was tracked. Results: A total of 54 simulated PGx POCT encounters took place with an average time of 9.49 minutes (SD ± 1.38 minutes). Instrument run time adds 60 minutes to the total time required to obtain a result. Duties that could be performed by an appropriately trained pharmacy technician totaled 6.86 minutes. Conclusions: PGx POCT would require 9.49 minutes of pharmacy staff hands-on time for the encounter, which could be reduced to 2.64 minutes of pharmacist time with appropriate pharmacy technician involvement. Time requirements for PGx POCT are similar to that of community pharmacy–based immunizations. Future studies could explore how practice could change if PGx testing were routinely performed in the pharmacy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)139-143
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Pharmacy Technology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Aug 1 2018


  • acute coronary syndromes
  • clinical decision making
  • medication therapy management
  • myocardial infarction
  • pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmaceutical Science


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