Purpose: To determine the toxicities and pharmacokinetic effects of eniluracil (EU) given on two weekly dosing schedules with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and leucovorin (LV). Methods: A group of 26 patients received a single 24-h i.v. infusion of 5-FU 2300 mg/m2 to provide a pharmacokinetic reference. After 2 weeks, patients received oral EU 20 mg plus LV 30 mg on days 1-3 with a single dose of 5-FU 15-29 mg/m2 on day 2, or LV 30 mg on days 1-2 with a single dose of EU at least 1 h prior to 5-FU 29 mg/m2 on day 2 weekly for 3 of 4 weeks. Results: Diarrhea was the most common dose-limiting toxicity. The recommended dose of 5-FU is 29 mg/m2 per day. EU on either schedule decreased 5-FU plasma clearance by 48 to 52-fold, prolonged the half-life to > 5 h, and increased the percentage of 5-FU excreted in the urine from 2% to 64-66%. With EU, plasma fluoro-β-alanine was not detected while urinary excretion was reduced to < 1% of that seen with i.v. 5-FU alone. Marked increases in both plasma and urinary uracil were seen. Thymidylate synthase ternary complex formation was demonstrated in bone marrow mononuclear cells isolated 24 h after the first oral 5-FU dose; the average was 66.5% bound. Conclusions: Either a single 20-mg dose of EU given prior to or for 3 days around the oral 5-FU dose led to comparable effects on 5-FU pharmacokinetic parameters, and inhibition of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase and thymidylate synthase.
- Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase
- Thymidylate synthase
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research
- Pharmacology (medical)