Antiretroviral therapy in people living with HIV can achieve potent, long-term suppression of HIV plasma viremia and has increased life expectancy. The central nervous system is infected early after virus acquisition and remains a reservoir for HIV. HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are an end-organ manifestation of HIV infection. The need to address neurological complications caused by HAND is significant as approximately 50% of people living with HIV on suppressive antiretroviral therapy are estimated to have some form of HAND. This review discusses the pathophysiology of HAND, CSF/CNS penetration and clinical pharmacology of antiretrovirals including pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationships, the persistence of HIV in the brain, and future therapeutic approaches to preserve and improve sustained viral suppression in the brain.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Drug Discovery