Purpose: We performed a phase I trial of piroxantrone with and without granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) to determine whether the use of this cytokine would enable us to increase the dose-intensity of piroxantrone. Patients and Methods: Thirty-eight patients received 121 courses of piroxantrone administered once every 21 days. Initial patient cohorts received piroxantrone alone starting at 150 mg/m2 and the dose was escalated in subsequent patients until dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) was reached. Patient cohorts then received escalating doses of piroxantrone starting at 185 mg/m2 administered with G-CSF beginning day 2. Results: Dose-limiting neutropenia occurred in three of six patients treated with 185 mg/m2 piroxantrone; the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) of piroxantrone alone was 150 mg/m2. Three of six patients treated with piroxantrone and G-CSF exhibited dose-limiting thrombocytopenia at 445 mg/m2; the MTD of piroxantrone with G- CSF was thus 355 mg/m2. Seven patients developed symptomatic congestive heart failure (CHF) at cumulative piroxantrone doses ranging from 855 to 2,475 mg/m2 and two have died of cardiotoxicity. Of these patients, six of seven had previously received doxorubicin. Other nonhematologic toxicity was mild. Conclusion: The use of G-CSF results in a more than twofold increase in the MTD of piroxantrone. However, symptomatic cardiotoxicity is prominent, especially in patients who have received prior treatment with anthracyclines.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research