Photo-, cathodo-, and electroluminescence from erbium and oxygen co-implanted GaN

J. T. Torvik, C. H. Qiu, R. J. Feuerstein, J. I. Pankove, F. Namavar

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94 Scopus citations


Efficient Er-related photo-, cathodo-, and electroluminescence at 1539 nm was detected from Er and O co-implanted n-type GaN on sapphire substrates. Several combinations of Er and O implants and postimplant annealing conditions were studied. The Er doses were in the range (0.01-5) × 1015 ions/cm2 and O doses (0.1-1) × 1016 ions/cm2. GaN films implanted with 2 × 1015 Er2+/cm2 at 350 keV and co-implanted with 1016 O+/cm2 at 80 keV yielded the strongest photoluminescence intensity at 1539 nm. The annealing condition yielding the strongest Er-related photoluminescence intensity was a single anneal at 800°C (45 rain) or at 900°C (30 min) in flowing NH3. The optimum O:Er ratio was found to be between 5:1 and 10:1. Co-implanting the GaN:Er films with F was also found to optically activate the Er, with slightly (20%) less photoluminescence intensity at 1539 nm compared to equivalent GaN:Er,O films. The Er-related luminescence lifetime at 1539 nm was found to depend on the excitation mechanism. Luminescence lifetimes as long as 2.95±0.15 ms were measured at 77 K under direct excitation with an InGaAs laser diode at 983 nm. At room temperature the luminescence lifetimes were 2.35±0.12, 2.15±0.11, and 1.74±0.08 ms using below-band-gap excitation, above-band-gap excitation, and impact excitation (reverse biased light emitting diode), respectively. The cross sections for Er in GaN were estimated to be 4.8 × 10-21 cm2 for direct optical excitation at 983 nm and 4.8×10-16 cm2 for impact excitation. The cross-section values are believed to be within a factor of 2-4.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)6343-6350
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Applied Physics
Issue number9
StatePublished - May 1 1997

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physics and Astronomy(all)

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