Recent reports suggest that excess amounts of sugar alcohol are linked to leukocyte dysfunctions associated with diabetes. As the polyol pathway has not been firmly established in leukocytes, we have investigated NADPH-dependent reductases and sugar alcohol formation in dog leukocytes. NADPH-dependent reductase activity was observed with DL-glyceraldehyde as substrate in both mononuclear and polymorphonuclear leukocytes isolated from dog. By chromatofocusing, this activity corresponded primarily to aldehyde reductase rather than aldose reductase. The enzymatic conversion of glucose to the sugar alcohol sorbitol in leukocytes was confirmed in vitro by 19F nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy using 3-deoxy-3-fluoro-D-glucose as substrate. The NMR spectrum obtained after incubation with 10 Mm 3-deoxy-3-fluoro-D-glucose at 37°C for 24 h displayed newly formed 3-deoxy-3-fluoro-D-sorbitol and 3-deoxy-3-fluoro-D-fructose peaks with both mononuclear and polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Sugar alcohol production in leukocytes from galactose-fed dogs was also observed in vivo. Galactitol accumulation was consistently observed by gas chromatography to occur in mononuclear cells while only trace amounts of galactitol were observed in polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Activation of NADPH oxidase activity in neutrophils isolated from galactose-fed dogs by zymosan was also significantly reduced compared to that of nongalactosemic control dogs. These results indicate that glucose is converted to fructose through sorbitol in both mononuclear and polymorphonuclear leukocytes despite the observations that these cells primarily contain aldehyde reductase rather than aldose reductase. In vivo, sugar alcohol accumulation in mononuclear cells is greater than in polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism