Although lung diseases typically result from long-term exposures, even a robust, one-time exposure can result in long-lasting consequences. Endotoxin is a ubiquitous environmental/occupational inflammatory agent often used to model airway inflammation. Using a murine model, the return to lung homeostasis following high dose inhalant lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 10–100 μg) exposure were delineated over 2 weeks. LPS-induced rapid weight loss, release of proinflammatory mediators, and inflammatory cell influx with prolonged persistence of activated macrophages CD11c+CD11b+ and recruited/transitioning CD11cintCD11b+ monocyte-macrophages out to 2 weeks. Next, lung-delivered recombinant (r) interleukin (IL)-10 was intratracheally administered for 3 doses initiated 5 h following LPS (10 μg) exposure for 2 days. IL-10 therapy reduced LPS-induced weight loss and increased blood glucose levels. Whereas there was no difference in LPS-induced bronchoalveolar lavage airway fluid cellular influx, total lung cell infiltrates were reduced (37%) with rIL-10 treatment. Post-LPS exposure treatment with rIL-10 strikingly reduced lavage fluid and lung homogenate levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (88% and 93% reduction, respectively), IL-6 (98% and 94% reduction), CXCL1 (66% and 75% reduction), and CXCL2 (47% and 67% reduction). LPS-induced recruited monocyte-macrophages (CD11cintCD11b+) were reduced (68%) with rIL-10. Correspondingly, LPS-induced lung tissue CCR2+ inflammatory monocyte-macrophage were reduced with rIL-10. There were also reductions in LPS-induced lung neutrophils, lymphocyte subpopulations, collagen content, and vimentin expression. These findings support the importance of studying resolution processes for the development of treatment after unintended environmental/occupational biohazard exposures. Short-term, lung-delivered rIL-10 favorably hastened inflammatory recovery processes following acute, high dose inhalant LPS exposure.
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